They penalise you for driving at the speed limit? Really, over limit maybe but on the limit, that would surprise me.
On NSL roads arbitrary soft speed limits are placed by insurance providers based upon perceived accident risk or rate. Therefore you drive at, say 56mph in an NSL on a road that the IC thinks you should only do 50 on, you get penalised. Even if driving at 60 on said road is perfectly acceptable.
I know this is a my grandma smoked till she was 100 kinda story but...
Conversely, I know people who have had their premiums increased for what is objectively perfectly safe driving in black box equipped cars. The problem with anecdotes is they're very subjective. But the limitations I've outlined can be inferred, and in some cases are expressly stated, in the T&Cs of the policies.
I know black boxes track which kinds of road you chose to drive on, insurance companies deem certain roads more dangerous.
I think you've slightly misunderstood how they work here. You don't get penalised for simply driving on roads that are perceived as more dangerous, you get penalised for exceeding certain "soft" speed limits or rather abitrary measures such as acceleration or deceleration (which are both normally measured) which have little to nothing to do with what may or may not actually be safe.
This uncertainly and fear of punishment leads to unnecessarily cautious or defensive driving, discourages situational awareness and generally promotes driving in a manner which appeases your electronic overlord whilst probably being less safe than someone driving normally.
As for the over taking, its a grey area. IIRC you are allowed to break the speed limit to make an overtake
It's not a grey area, this is a common misconception. It's not actually legal to exceed the speed limit during an otherwise completely safe overtake, it just isn't ever really enforced. Much as is the case with driving in the middle lane of a motorway when not passing traffic- technically illegal, but not enforced.
As for the other things you mention they are definitely just as if not more dangerous than some of the things a black box cannot cover and cause a whole lot of issues on our roads. Black boxes do not actively encourage them though, they just cannot monitor them.
There's no reason black box technology couldn't monitor most of those things, though. It would probably be more conducive to changing driving attitudes and habits if it fined everyone who drove in fog with no f*cking lights £100 every time.
Drivers are on the whole too lacking in situational awareness and basic comprehension of vehicle dynamics anyway thanks to the never-ending crusade and the constant encroachment of nannying technology, we don't need new drivers being indoctrinated in these habits.